Friday, December 30, 2011

Eating Chilean Erizos, Sea Urchins

Like foie gras, egg yolks and pork belly, sea urchins have a lusciousness and weight that make chefs drool. “The mouth-feel is pure cholesterol,” said Michelle Bernstein-Martinez …who helped create a pressed sea urchin sandwich that is legendary in food circles.  She spreads slabs of Cuban bread with soy-ginger-flavored butter, stuffs the bread with sea urchins and presses the sandwich on a hot griddle until crisp and melting. “I eat it all day long — the only problem is that I am eating my profits.  Escape from the Sushi Bar,” Julia Moskin, New York Times, May 12, 2009. 

Sea urchin sandwich: Flickr, thewanderingeater

In case your experience with sandwiches in Chile has been limited to completos (hot dogs with everything) or ave paltas (chicken with avocado) something a bit more elegant is possible.  Of course you’ll have to make it at home, since the sangüche de erizos has not yet arrived at Santiago restaurants.  But then it won’t cost you $15 plus air fare to New York either.

A bit of history and biology

In spite of the lack of sangüches de erizos, sea urchins have been part of Chilean cuisine for millennia and continue to be popular today.  Their remains are prominent in coastal archaeological sites dating back 11,000 years[1] and were appreciated by the coastal Mapuche, who the Spanish met upon their arrival.  The Spanish had known, eaten and used sea urchins of the Atlantic and Mediterranean medicinally, although I doubt that Chile’s conquistadors, who came mainly from landlocked Extremadura, knew much about them.  Never the less, the young Chilean-Spanish soldier Francisco Núñez de Pineda y  Bascuñán, who was captured and held prisoner by the Mapuche in the 1620s seems to have known enough to have mentioned erizos in his account of his “happy captivity.”

By the 1670’s Chile’s sea urchins were well enough know that Diego de Rosales’ wrote about them in his Historia general de el Reyno de Chile:

Sea urchins are round and flat, and defend themselves not only with their shell, but they also arm themselves with sharp spines, with which they are filled all round.  …Enclosed inside is a meaty substance divided into tongue-like yellow forms… These tongues are soft and very tasty and greatly heat the stomach and easily provoke urination. [2]

                                     Loxechinus albus         photo:  Shallow Marine Surveys Group

He also says that they have a little crab inside with which, when food is scarce, “they sustain themselves, they eat them,” and in fact there are species of small pea crabs that are found inside sea urchins in the Caribbean… and perhaps in Chile too.[3] But I don’t think the urchins eat them.

One hundred or so years later, Abate Molina, Jesuit naturalist Juan Ignacio Molina, also wrote abut Chilean sea urchins:

The Echinos or sea urchins are divided into several species, the most notable being the white urchins and the black urchins.  The white ones, Echinus albus, [now Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782)] are globular, three inches in diameter; they have a white shell and spines and the internal substance, which is extremely delicious, is of a profoundly yellow [amarizllazo] color. …The Chilean Indians call them jupe.
Black urchins, Echinus niger, [now Tetrapygus niger (Molina, 1782)] are oval in shape, somewhat larger than the white ones, and have black spines, shell and eggs; they are called devil’s urchins, and they are never eaten.[4]

The eatable part, the tongue-like yellow substance inside the urchins, is its reproductive organs which produce egg in females and sperm in males.  Both are eaten and are usually called sea urchin roe or corals.[5]  The white sea urchin (called the “Chilean red sea urchin” in the trade), from the near shore waters of Chile and Peru, is one of hundreds of species found in shallow ocean waters world wide. They feed mainly on sea weeds, but can also eat invertebrates like sea cucumbers, mussels, and sponges.  Sea urchin populations sometimes explode, whether from overfishing of their predators (including lobsters, and sea otters) or for unknown reasons, and eat everything eatable on the ocean floor leaving decimated “urchin barrens” behind. 

Once sea urchins had been described by Chile’s great colonial period naturalists, they ceased to exist—at least in writing—until resurrected by foreign visitors who found Chileans’ humble every-day foods interesting.  Their next appearance in literature seems to be in 1878, when Englishwoman Mrs. (Baroness Anna) Brassey saw (but seems not to have eaten) urchins in the Chilean port of Coronel in 1878.  She called them “sea eggs.”

Drawn up by the side of the pier was a picturesque looking market boat full of many sorts of vegetables and sea eggs, with their spines removed, and neatly tied with rushes into parcels of three.  The people seemed to enjoy them raw, in which state they are considered to be most nutritious; and when roasted in their shells or made into omelettes they are a favorite article of food with all classes.[6]

If urchins were a “favorite food with all classes” in the 1870s they have now fallen from favor.  Only 2% of Santiago residents surveyed in 1999 said that they ate urchins “frequently,”[7] but then all seafood consumption has fallen sharply in Chile.  Average per capita consumption in is only 7 Kg. per year. (see Eating Chilean Fish) compared to a world average of 17 Kg. (2008).


But some Chileans, mainly from the upper socioeconomic classes, continue to enjoy urchins, usually raw with a green sauce of parsley, onion, lemon juice and a little oil (at right); in a tortilla (omelet) de erizos like the ones Mrs. Brassey saw; or in sauces that adorn other seafood.

A few recipes:

The current issue of Paula, Chile’s best known magazine of food, home and style provides an article on urchins, “A Banquet of sea Urchins” including a recipe for a Tortilla de Erizos.

Sea urchin sauce is also popular over baked or poached fish, in this case corvina, as in this recipe from the 1911 Chilean cookbook, La negrita Doddi.[8]

Salsa de Erizos

(for corvina)
 In a skillet melt 50 grams [3 ½ T] of butter or lard with 30 grams [¼  cup] of flour and mix until well blended.  Add salt and pepper and 200 ml. of [fish] stock and bring to a boil.  Remove from the shell and rinse some sea urchin tongues and add to the sauce, continuing to stir until it comes to a boil, and then remove from the stove.  Just before serving add 30 grams of butter [2 T], cut into small pieces to melt quickly, and stir gently.  Add a few drops of lemon juice if you wish.
And from the same period, here’s a recipe for a Sea Urchin Soup (caldillo) from the magazine Familia of August, 1912.[9]

Caldillo de Erizos

Fry a little flour in butter and color [paprika or ground chili], add onion cut in plumas (sliced vertically) and the urchin tongues, and cover with the liquid from the urchins and when hot add oregano, cumin, salt and pepper.  Allow to boil a little while.  Then add an egg beaten with milk and lemon juice.  Serve with slices of toast.

A little history, a few recipes; that’s about all there is to say about Chilean sea urchins…. Or is it?

Chile’s sea urchin fisheries are the largest in the world and have been contributing more than 50% of the world’s production since the mid-1990s.  "Sea Urchin Fishery Profiles," 2006[10]
 Impetus for this development was not that Chileans suddenly renewed their taste for this traditional product; it was the Japanese.  Fresh sea urchins roe, uni, eaten raw as sushi or sashimi is among the most desirable foods in Japan, and the Japanese are the world’s major importers and consumers of sea urchins, importing 246 million dollars worth in 2002.

 Uni sushi in two colors:  Photo 徒然日記

Japan was the also world’s largest harvester of sea urchins until 1984. But since the 1970s Japanese harvests have declined steadily, due mainly to sea urchins’ declining abundance. The 2002harvest of 13,000 metric tons (mt) was less than half of the record landings of 1969. In 1985 the Chilean harvest surpassed that of Japan and since 1987 harvests in both Chile and the United States have exceeded Japanese landings.

Japanese imports increased tenfold from 1,779 mt ($20 million) in 1975 to 18,535 mt ($246 million) in 2002 when they supplied 88% of consumption.  Roe prices have fluctuated from 1986 to 2002 depending on supply, with Japanese roe ranging from about 7,500 to 13,000 yen/kg and imported roe selling for from 5,200 to 6,700 yen/kg in Tokyo’s central wholesale market.  Meanwhile, the Japanese yen has surged against the US dollar so that average 1986 import prices of 6786 yen/kg had a value of $33/kg and average 2002 import prices of 5278 yen/kg equaled $42/kg.[11] 

So Chile became the world’s major exporter of sea urchins.

Before about 1975 Chilean sea urchins were at best a minor element in Chile’s fishery, mostly collected by artisanal fishermen and their families wading in the surf zone of rocky shorelines during a few days each year with low tides and calm waters.  The annual harvest was only a few thousand mt that were sold locally, but by 1975 the harvest had grown to 10,000 tons and reached 60,000 tons in 1992, the peak year.  Remarkably, the Chilean catch seems to be sustainable—at least for now; it has been between 40 and 60,000 mt since the mid 1990s. [12]

Today, Chile’s erizo fishery is dominated by owners of lanchas de accarreo, carrier vessels, and small boat operators who work for them.  The carrier vessels are 60 to 80 foot boats that guide, supply and collect the catch from fleets of a dozen or so faenas, small dive boats. The “hookah” divers who do the actual collecting are supplied with air through compressors and tubing, and harvest about 1000 lbs a day in 3 to 5 hours of diving. The crews of the faenas live on their boats for months at a time while harvesting the surrounding area.  The carriers make almost daily roundtrips from the collecting areas, in the islands south of Chiloe Island, back to their home port of Quellon.

Dive boat with larger carrier (?) in the background  photo: German Henriquez

The carrier boats receive (as of 2007) about 240 centavos per kg. ($.48 US) of which about 70% goes to the divers.  These urchins go to local processing plants where they are cleaned and shipped onward to be frozen for export to Japan.  Local divers whose fresh whole erizos sell in local markets receive up to 1,000 pesos a kg.[13]

Sea urchin processing in Quellon, Chiloé island. (Photo:  Proa)
By the time fresh urchins arrive in Santiago, the sell for 7-800 Chilean pesos each, about $1.35 to $1.50 each.  By comparison in US you would pay $8 to $15 per urchin.  And who knows what in Japan.  I’ll eat mine here.


Sea urchins, Mercado Central,

But if you can’t get to the Mercado Central, Sea urchins are on sale via the Internet.  Those bellow from Catalina Offshore products are sold at about as good a price as you will find and are from California where they are hand-harvested by divers.


Sea urchins are also available from Maine where they are harvested by dredging, a method that is not sustainable and has a by-catch of everything on the bottom.  Monterey Bay aquarium’s Seafood watch recommends that you avoid sea urchins from Mane.

Should you try them?  Perhaps quote from Julio Camba (1882-1962) Spanish journalist, writer and gourmand will encourage you.

 And, by the way:  If you are rich enough to worry about getting fat from eating sea urchins, you’re okay.  They have only 145 calories per 100 gm.  But don’t eat too many, they are high in cholesterol.

And for other Chilean seafood, see these links:

[1] Alfaro, Silvia y Claudia Solervicens. ND. Prehistoria del Valle de Choapa. Codelco, ReCrea - Servicios Editoriales y Educativos Ltda.  On line at
[2] Rosales, Diego de. 1877. Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna. ed. Historia general de el Reyno de Chile: Flandes Indiano (1425-1553). I. Valparaíso, Chile: Imprenta i Libreria del Mercurio. P. 304  All translations mine.
[3] Pea crab. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  On line at  And thanks to the erudite members of’s forum who helped me translate this quotation and knew that pea crabs live inside urchins.
[4] Molina, Juan Ignacio. 1987. Ensayo sobre la historia natural de Chile : Bolonia 1810 Santiago : Eds. Maule. p. 219.
[5] Sea urchin. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  On line at
[6] Mrs. (Ann) Brassey. 1881. A Voyage in the Sunbeam, our Home on the Ocean for Eleven Months.  Chicago: Belford, Clarke & Co. p.159.
[7] Soong, Roland. 2000. Eating Seafood in Chile.  Zona Latina.  On line at
[8] Lawe.  1911 La negrita Doddy : nuevo libro de cocina, enseñanza completa de la cocina casera i parte de la gran cocina : con un apéndice de recetas útiles i de los deberes de una dueña de casa. Santiago : Soc. Impr. y Litogr., Universo. p. 28. On line at
[9] Menoria Chelina.  2009 Para chuparse los dedos: Recetas de familia. On line at
[10] Sea Urchin Fishery Profiles:  A background document produced by Explorations Unlimited Inc. Pacific Urchin Harvesters Association/West Coast Green Urchin Association. p. 45  On line at
[11] Sonu, Sunee C. 2003. The Japanese Sea Urchin Market. NOAA Technical Memorandum (NMFS N OM-TM - N M FS-S W R-040).  On line at
[12] Molyneaux, Paul. 2007 Sustainable Sea Urchins in Chile:  A Rep[ort for the SUZC,
[13] Ibid.

Saturday, December 3, 2011

German-Chilean food / Comida chilena-alemana

On my first day in Chile, I crossed the river from my hostel to Bellavista, Santiago’s “Bohemian” neighborhood, sat down at an out door cafe and ordered a beer in my usually serviceable gringo Spanish.

Me:  “A beer please.”
Waiter: “A schop?”     
Me:  “Ah… a beer, I’ll have a beer.”
Waiter, with irritation, while making beer stein gestures:  “A schop, you want a schop?”
Me: “Okay, okay, I’ll have a schop.
Waiter: “Escudo?”
Me: “Excuse me?”

Not a great beginning for gringo Spanish in Chile.

As it turns out schop, from the German schoppen, is Chilean for a draft beer and Escudo (shield) is one of the most popular Chilean beers—a descendant of beer made by German immigrant Carl (Carlos) Anwandter who established his brewery in Valdivia, in south central Chile, in 1851.

Carlos Anwandter was among the earliest of some 11,000 Germans who immigrated to Chile between 1846 and 1914, about half of whom settled in the southern frontier zone.  There they established German-speaking communities that included many skilled craftsmen and professionals: beer-brewers, tanners, furniture makers, pharmacists, professors and scientific investigators.[1]  Today 500,000 to 600,000 descendants claim German ancestry and German-Chileans are prominent in all aspects of Chilean life:  politics, business, academia, art, and of course, brewing and food service. 

German restaurants, serving a wide variety of German (and German-Chilean) dishes are common in Santiago and surrounding areas.  Some of the best known are the chain Bavaria, Tante Marlene, and Restaurant Der Münchner, below.


But perhaps the most popular are the German-Chilean cafes and schoperías (beer joints) where you can have a beer and anything from a sandwich to a full meal.  Among the best known are the Santiago classics  Fuente Alemana, and the Elkika Ilmenau, or the chain Tip y Top. All serve everything mentioned here along with German sausage plates, hamburgers, hot dogs, and Chilean sandwiches like churrascos (steak), “Barros Lucos,” (hot beef and cheese), and lomitos (below). 

 The lomito completo (roast pork sandwich with sauerkraut, tomatoes, avocado and mayonnaise) at Elkika.

German influences in Chilean cuisine

Naturally, Germans immigrants influenced regular Chilean cuisine, especially in the south, but also nationally. Today kuchenes, German influenced cakes, and a sprinkling of other German dishes are widely integrated into Chilean diet. 

Chilean kuchen

Kuchen, “cake” in German, is among the most mobile of German foods; it seems to have migrated into the national cuisines everywhere Germans settled.  Kuchen is the official state dessert of North Dakota; it’s popular in Brazil under the name cuca, where it usually refers to a banana cake  with a streusel topping; and in Argentina as torta alemana or simply as kuchen.

While Kuchen can refer to a wide variety of cakes in German, in Chile kuchen is a pastry with a crust of firm cake or crisp tart dough topped with fruit and sometimes streusel (a crumb topping of flour, sugar and butter). The classic Chilean cookbook, La Gran Cocina Chilena includes 17 Kuchen recipes.[2]  No onces, a light Chilean meal like tea taken in the early evening, is complete without a kuchen.

Kuchen de frutillas (strawberry kuchen, right),

Photo and recipe in English from Canela Kitchen

Kuchen de Quesillo (fresh cheese kuchen with blueberries, below)

Photo and recipe in Spanish from La Cocina de Latimer
For a recipe in ‘English see Rick Cooks


And for the most Chilean of all, there is the Chilean Flag kuchen, from Pasteleria Mozart in Santiago.

Pernil – pork hock

While kuchen is the most widely appreciated German-Chilean dish, pernil certainly has its advocates.  Pernil means “leg” or “shoulder” (as in pork “picnic” shoulder) in traditional Spanish, but in Chile a pernil is a generous pork hock, usually served boiled with mashed potatoes or sauerkraut (chocrut).  Peel away the thick layer of skin and fat and the meat below is succulent and meltingly tender.

Pernil with puré -  photo: felipemarques' photostream

It is found in German-Chilean restaurants, but also where no other obviously German dishes appear on the menu.  In this restaurant sign from Orsono, it is the “Suggestion of the Day”, served with sauerkraut, pebre (Chilean salsa) and Chilean spicy mashed potatoes

Roasted pernil (the German schweinshaxe) is also popular and is sold in some supermarkets, cooked on a rotisserie like chicken. 

Chocrut – sauerkraut

Where there’s pernilI, there must be chocrut.  The earliest ChileanSauerkraut recipes I’ve found come from La Negrita Doddi, the French influenced 1911cookbook. They are Ganso (goose) a la choucrute and Choucrute al la alemana (German stile). Both use the French spelling “choucrute” and neither actually uses sauerkraut (fermented cabbage), but cabbage blanched in boiling water and drained, then simmered with onion, sausage and bacon – and goose in the first recipe. A similar recipe occurs in the 1882 Nuevo manual de cocina where it is called simply “partridges with cabbage” (perdices con repollo, p.72).  All (or none) may reflect the influence of German immigrants who began arriving in 1846.  Today in Chile sauerkraut is most commonly found on a completo, a Chilean hotdog with tomatoes, sauerkraut, avocado and abundant mayonnaise; or on other sandwiches.

Asado Aleman (“German roast” AKA meatloaf)

Chilean asado aleman, like pernil, is found on the menus of Chilean restaurants with no other “German” dishes. It often includes hard boiled eggs and sometimes cooked carrots. The meat is usually ground beef combined with milk-soaked bread and eggs, sautéed onions and perhaps garlic, paprika or oregano.

Photo and recipe in Spanish: Corazón de Alcachofa

Similar recipes are found all over Latin America under the names “albondigon” (big meatball), or molde de carne (mold of meat), although characteristically the Chilean version tends to be among the simplest and least highly seasoned.   

Escalopa Kaiser – beef cordon bleu

Milinesas or escalopas, thin cutlets of meat, coated in bread crumbs and fried, are popular throughout Latin America as well as in Europe.  They seem to have been in Chile before there was much German influence, appearing in the 1882 Chilean cookbook, Nuevo manual de cocina as biftek rebozado (breaded steak).  But today’s version, the Escalopa Kaiser, certainly owes its origin (or at least its name) to German immigration.  It is two slices of beef with sliced ham and cheese sandwiched between, the whole breaded and fried.  They are popular and served widely, as the one below (which appears to be chicken) at the Oktober Fest 2008, Malloco, Chile.

 “Daniel, happy with his Escalopa Kaiser

Alvaro Farfan's photostream

Crudossteak tartare (literally “raws”)

While Chile’s most famous crudos are served at the Café Haussmann in Valdivia, they are also popular in Santiago and other cities, especially as bar food.  Everyone in Valdivia seems to have a version of the “authentic” Café Haussmann recipe, each one a little different.

Crudos served at Café Haussmann, Valdivia      Photo Wkipedia 

1 Kg. (2 ¼ lb)  beef rump roast, finely ground
6 eggs
 Mix the beef and eggs and serve over toast with chopped onions.  You may add lemon juice, minced green Chilean chilies in olive oil and Haussamnn’s sauce: equal parts of mayonnaise and cream (some say yogurt), salt and cilantro.  (To prevent the beef from discoloring add lemon juice with eggs.)

Here’s another version, from Ana María Springer Hitschfeld of Frutillar, a German-Chilean town in the south.

800 gm. (1 ¾ lb.) beef rump roast, finely ground
Chopped chives, 2 bunches
2 tablespoons capers
3 grated dill pickles
1 egg yolk
Lemon juice
Freshly ground pepper to taste
Variety of breads

Mix meat, chopped chives, capers, pickle, egg yolk (optional), lemon juice, salt and pepper.  Serve molded on a plate with variety of breads.

Other German-Chilean foods

Other classic German foods, purple cabbage, smoked pork chops, rye bread, German style sausages (bratwurst, weisswurst, etc.) are occasionally (some regularly) available in Chilean supermarkets (Jumbo for example), but are not really integrated into Chilean cuisine.   And of course hot dogs and hamburgers are ubiquitous; although they seem to be only indirectly German – via the USA.

[1] German Genealogy: Chile. On line at
[2] Alfaro, Mónica T. 2000. La Gran Cocina Chilena, 8th Edition.  Santiago:  Ediciones Occidente S.A. p. 416

Sunday, September 18, 2011

Chilean Chicha

We sat down by the fire and they immediately placed before us two good looking pitchers of chicha. My portion was clear, sweet and spicy, and the chief toasted me with it, saying that I should eat and drink…  Francisco Núñez de Pineda y Bascuñán. 1673 (all translations mine) 
This drink is highly appreciated in Chile and rich families as well as the poor consume great quantities while it retains its sweetness.  Claudio Gay, 1841 
The Independence Day fiestas are coming soon and there will be no Chilean tables that don’t include a good meat empanada and a glass of chicha. September, 2011[1]

From before the Spanish conquest to today chicha has been the most Chilean of drinks.  Whether the sweet strawberry chicha that the young soldier Núñez de Pineda y Bascuñán enjoyed,  the stronger muday or corn chicha the Mapuche warriors drank, the apple chicha of Chiloé, or the grape chicha of central Chile, it has brought refreshment and cheer to Chileans for centuries, perhaps for millennia.

Chicha came to the attention of the European voyagers early.  On the fifth of August, 1498, Columbus came ashore in Venezuela and, according to the letter he wrote to the King, the Indians “…brought …. wine of many kinds white and red, but not of grapes. It must be of several kinds, one of one fruit and one of another and likewise one must be of maize, which is a seed which makes a spike like a cob…”

To the Spanish, all were “chicha,” a term which seems to have been part of several indigenous American languages. It was first documented in written Spanish in 1521, when a visitor to Panama noted that it was short for “chichah co-pah”, where “chichah” meant maize and “co-pah” drink.[2]  It came to be used generically for the fermented drinks of the Indians, replacing the native terms like the azúa of the Incas and the muday of the Mapuche of Chile.

Mapuche Chicha

Among the Mapuche, indigenous people of south central Chile, chicha made from grains or fruits was an integral part of social life. Núñez de Pineda y Bascuñán writes about a gathering he attended in the 1620s:

To the chiefs they gave splendid food, various dishes of fish, shellfish, fowl, partridges, bacon, sausages, pastries, buñuelos, tomatoes, rolls of beans and maize, and other things, providing for each band according to the people it contained, one hundred or two hundred measures of chicha, because more commonly only twenty or thirty bands came together for ordinary drinking parties and feasts, but in this one there were more than fifty, with a daily consumption of more than four thousand jugs of chicha. And that was not a lot, because there were twelve or fourteen thousand souls at that feast, Indian men and women, girls [chinas] and boys.[3]
Jesuit Diego de Rosales, who was a missionary among the Mapuche in the 17th century explains:
Chicha, which is like beer or our wine, is the joy of all get-togethers or parties and is the usual drink, because there are Indians who never drink water, but only chicha in their houses, and if it is lacking it there is an argument with the women that often ends in blows.  …They make chicha of all kinds, from grains like maize, wheat, barley, and from fruit like apples, pears, quince, strawberries, piñones [seeds of Araucaria araucana] murtilla [Chilean Guava, Ugni molinae) and other native fruit: they grind the grain, add yeast, heat it and when it is just right it is finished.

Mapuches making apple chicha -  Edmond Reuel Smith 1855[4]

When they have to make a lot of [maize] chicha for a large party, the women get together at night and in a circle with their milling stones they spend the whole night singing a funny song in which they keep time with the movements of their milling.  The old women and the little girls who don’t have the strength to mill (which takes a lot of strength) work in making yeast, which they do with the flour they are making, chewing it and putting it into some pitchers, and there is an old woman who grinds the yeast. This yeast and the ground flour they put in large pans of water that are on the fire, and this is the chicha at its beginning, which if kept for many days becomes sour and is strong like strong spicy vinegar. [5]
This method of making maize chicha, which Rosales describes above, was common throughout maize growing areas of central and South America.  It involves masticating ground coked maize, drying it, and then mixing it with more ground maize and water.  This was then brought to a boil and allowed to ferment.  By masticating the maize, enzymes in the saliva convert some of the starch into sugar, which is then available to yeasts for fermentation into alcohol. It is not “yeast” as Rosales thought, but is an alternative to malting (sprouting) grain, which accomplishes the same purpose. (No mastication was required for fruit chichas.)

Colonial Chilean chicha

Soon after the Spanish arrived in Chile, planting grapes was a high priority as wine was essential for religious observances and was an integral part of Spanish diet.  Vines arrived in Mexico as early as 1520, in Peru by 1540, and Chile the first vineyard was plated by Juan Jufré, first alcalde (mayor) of Santiago, probably around 1550 and wine production began shortly afterward.[6] 

But chicha isn’t exactly wine, it’s wine in the process of fermentation, and the origins of grape chicha, as distinct from wine, are unclear.  Chilean historian Eugenio Pereira Salas sees it as a “new drink” which, in the 18th century was replacing wine, as the drink of the common people. It is first mentioned in 1760, when seen as responsible for death and disgraceful behavior caused by the “the boundless appetite of the common people who make it and who have given it the name chichita.”[7]

Pereria Salas sees chicha as a descendant of Mapuche muday, which is quite reasonable, but he notes that in Spain it would be known as “sagardúa,” from the Basque word for cider. In fact similar partially fermented wines are produced throughout Europe, under names that translate as “feather wine,” “new wine,” “young wine,” and in southern Spain as “mosto,” though none seem to be cooked before fermentation and it do not keep as long as chicha.

Claudio Gay, writing in the 1840s, explains how it Chilean chicha, now called (chicha cocida or chicha baya) was made:
It is preferably prepared from the juice of the sweetest grapes. This juice is given a light coking, frequently not reaching a boil, and after cooling, it is placed in sealed barrels. Form that point fermentation proceeds, producing a great deal of carbon dioxide which puts the barrel in risk if a pinhole is not carefully opened for the gas to escape. This pinhole is closed with a plug that is removed every two hours during the fermentation. The chicha thus produced is decanted into barrels for consumption. After six to eight days it can be drunk, and many people prefer it as it is then foamy and spicy, but it causes many burps and for this reason it is usually drunk only a month or two later. It doesn’t last long and by October it begins to oxidize and is used for distillation [into aguardiente].[8]

Chicha cruda, uncooked chicha, or chacolí was (and still is) also be made by simply allowing grape juice to ferment, but it must be drunk within a few days before it begins to turn to vinegar.

By the time Englishwoman Maria Grahm was in Chile, in the 1840s…
The liquor commonly drank by the lower classes is chicha, the regular descendant of that intoxicating chicha which the Spaniards found the South American savages possessed of the art of making, by chewing various berries and grains, spitting them into a large vessel, and allowing them to ferment. But the great and increasing demand for chicha has introduced a cleanlier way of making it ; and it is now in fact little other than harsh cider, the greater part being produced from apples, and flavored with the various berries which formerly supplied the whole of the Indian chicha.[9]
The chicha deliveryman[10]

Chilean chicha today

While there is bottled chicha in the supermarkets around the time of Chilean Independence day, September 18, most Chilean chicha is sold from barrels in fondas (booths) at independence day celebrations, picadas (cafes/bars), or at the rural chicharias where it is made.  This year we bought ours from the Valladares, artisanal producers in the town of Curacaví, 50 km or so from Santiago.

Their production techniques are virtually the same as those reported by Gay in the 1840s.  The grape juice is heated for several hours at a low temperature and when cool, sealed into tinajas, large earthenware jars, for fermentation.  They didn’t mention allowing the carbon dioxide to escape—perhaps the seal on the tinajas isn’t so tight as to build up destructive pressure. Then when the chicha has reached the point they wish, sweet but with good acidity and a bit of alcohol, it is decanted into barrels. 

Tinajas of chicha

Two strengths were available when we went, one quite sweet and the other less so and a bit more piquant.  We bought some of each, the piquant to drink then (they said that it wouldn’t last until the 18th), and the sweet to save for the 18th, about 10 days later.  It was about 1,500 pesos ($3.15) a liter.  They have chicha available year round.

Chicha de Curacaví

Chicha de Curacaví, chicha balla y curaora 
Chicha de Curacaví. Que ponis los pasos lentos
Chicha de Curacaví a mi no me los ponis
Cicha de Curacaví por que te pasó pa' entro
Chicha de Curacaví chicha valla y curaora

Se acabó la chichita alla va, lla va, tambien la
Se curó la cantora alla va, lla va, todos pa' fuera
Se acabó la chichita alla va, lla va, tambien la vela.
Todos pa' fuera ay si alla va, lla va, chicha en botella 
A la mujer celosa alla va, lla va, palos con ella.[11]

Which is, more or less, the following:

Chicha de Curacaví, cream colored and intoxicating
Chicha de Curacaví, that makes you step slowly
Chicha de Curacaví, but that doesn’t happen to me
Cicha de Curacaví because I put it inside me
Chicha de Curacaví, cream colored and intoxicating.

The chicha is all gone, there it goes, the candle is out too
The singer got drunk, there it goes, everyone goes out side
Everyone goes outside, there they go, chicha in a bottle
The jealous woman, there she goes, give her a whack.

And here’s a video with the music.

[1] Núñez de Pineda y Bascuñán, Francisco, 1608-1680. 2001. El cautiverio feliz, Tomo dos; edición crítica de Mario Ferreccio Podestá y Raïssa Kordić  Riquelme. Santiago de Chile: Seminario de Filología Hispánica, Facultad de Filosofía y Humanidades, Universidad de Chile, p. 86. on line at; Gay, Claudia 1862 Agricultura Vol 2, p. 193. Chile: Museo de Historia Natural de Santiago online at; and Fierro, Verónica.  En fiestas patrias: ministerio de agricultura elegirá las mejores empanadas y chicha de todo chile.  Sept. 11, 2011.
[2] Pardo, O. 2004. Las chichas en el chile precolombino. (basado en una trabajo presentado en el xii congreso ítalo-latinoamericano de etnomedicina "nuno álvares pereira" (Río de Janeiro, Brasil, 8-12 de Septiembre 2003). Chloris Chilensis año 7 nº 2. Url:
[3] Núñez de Pineda y Bascuñán, Op Cit. p. 207.
[4] Smith, Edmund Reuel. 1855. The Araucanians; or, Notes of a Tour among the Indian tribes of Southern Chile.  New York:  Harper & brothers. p. 278 On line at  
[5] Rosales, Diego de. 1877 (1674) Historia general de el Reyno de Chile: Flandes Indiano. Valpariso: Imprenta del Mercurio. Vol. I p. 155. on line at
[6] Pozo, José del.  1998. Historia del vino chileno desde 1850 hasta hoy. Santiago: Editorial Universitaria. P. 28.  On line at
[7] Pereira Salas, Eugenio.  1977. Apuntes para la historia de la cocina chilena.  Santiago : Universitaria. p. 65 On line at
[8] Gay, Caludio. Op. cit. p.
[9] Graham, Maria. 1824. Journal of a Residence in Chile, During the Year 1822.  London: Longman, Hurst, etc. p. 127. On line at
[10] Drawing by unknown author from Álbud de tioso chilenos de mediados del siglo diecinueve, Sociedad de Bibliófilo Chilenos, Santiago, 1987 as reproduced in Pozo, Jose, Op. cit. p. 39